Energy Efficient Vending Machines
Vending Machine: Energy-Efficient vs. Conventional
Vending machines that use less energy, especially when occupancy has not been detected for a while.
Item ID: 547
Process Loads & Appliances--Commercial and Residential Appliances
Technical Advisory Group: 2014 Commercial Building TAG (#9)
Average TAG Rating: 3.31 out of 5
TAG Ranking Date: 03/17/2014
TAG Rating Commentary:
- Not an emerging technology at this point - these have been deployed in the field for 15 years or more.
- Scaling issue - not likely to be a significant source of savings. Support comes from ease of broad implementation.
- Support but not sure if there is a new technology here that is being suggested
- Easy efficiency gains.
There are over 120,000 vending machines in the Pacific Northwest that consume over 400 million kWh annually (in 2007). Energy efficiency in these beverage vending machines has been pursued for over a decade. Energy Star initiated vending machine specifications in April 2004 for both new and rebuilt machines. In 2002, BPA launched an initiative to install VendingMisers on all v machines within the region. (VendingMisers save energy by using an infra-red sensor to cut power to the vending machine when no traffic is monitored over a 15-minute period. An external temperature sensor is used to ensure that product temperatures are maintained). Private utilities followed with VendingMiser incentives.
Quantec/Cadmus concluded that existing programs (including VendingMiser) did not alter the natural state of the beverage vending market. VendingMisers are subject to loss/theft/vandalism. A 2003 ETO program determined that 32% of installed VendingMiser units were no longer in place and operational (within one year).
The Cadmus Group estimated an annual energy use of 2,600 kWh/year for a baseline beverage vending machine (in 2009). Machines equipped with LED lighting, programmable lighting or dimming controls, electronically commutated evaporator fan motors, programmable refrigeration temperature setpoints, and controls that automatically adjust the storage mode temperature during periods of inactivity could potentially save about 50% of an older machines energy use. Current Energy Star best available beverage machines have maximum daily energy consumptions of 4.22 kWh (or 1,540 kWh/year) and these requirements are continually being tightened. The population of inefficient machines is reduced as older machines are replaced or refurbished.
Baseline Description: Baseline Old (Conventional) Beverage Vending Machine
Baseline Energy Use: 2600 kWh per year per unit
From measurements taken by Cadmus on a "common model" vending machine (Bruchs, 2009).
Manufacturer's Energy Savings Claims:
"Typical" Savings: 50%
Best Estimate of Energy Savings:
"Typical" Savings: 46%
Energy Savings Reliability: 6 - Approved Measure
Energy savings obtained through use of lighting and thermostatic beverage vending machine controls (Bruchs, 2009).
Energy Use of Emerging Technology:
1,404 kWh per unit per year
Energy Use of an Emerging Technology is based upon the following algorithm.
Baseline Energy Use - (Baseline Energy Use * Best Estimate of Energy Savings (either Typical savings OR the high range of savings.))
Potential number of units replaced by this technology:
From Quantec study for the Northwest Power Council's RTF Group (Haeri, 2007). It is not known how many beverage vending units have been upgraded since 2007, so this number is used to represent the maximum potential savings. Studies have shown that approximately 10% of the vending machine fleet is replaced each year, with a larger number being refurbished. Market trends are moving away from closed from beverage (soda) machines to glass front machines that deliver other products such as bottled water and juices.
Regional Technical Potential:
0.14 TWh per year
Regional Technical Potential of an Emerging Technology is calculated as follows:
Baseline Energy Use * Estimate of Energy Savings (either Typical savings OR the high range of savings) * Technical Potential (potential number of units replaced by the Emerging Technology)
Currently no data available.
Simple payback, new construction (years): N/A
Simple payback, retrofit (years): N/A
Cost Effectiveness is calculated using baseline energy use, best estimate of typical energy savings, and first cost. It does not account for factors such as impacts on O&M costs (which could be significant if product life is greatly extended) or savings of non-electric fuels such as natural gas. Actual overall cost effectiveness could be significantly different based on these other factors.